|Chalcedony var Chrysoprase
chrysophrase or chrysoprasus is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (a
cryptocrystalline form of silica) that contains small quantities of
nickel. Its color is normally apple-green, but varies to deep green. The
darker varieties of chrysoprase are also referred to as prase.
(However, the term prase is also used to describe chlorite-included
quartz, and to a certain extent is a color-descriptor, rather than a
rigorously defined mineral variety.)
Chrysoprase is cryptocrystalline, which means that it is composed of
crystals so fine that they cannot be seen as distinct particles under
normal magnification. This sets it apart from rock crystal, amethyst,
citrine, and the other varieties of crystalline quartz. Other members of
the cryptocrystalline silica family include agate, carnelian, and onyx.
Unlike many non-transparent silica minerals, it is the color of
chrysoprase, rather than any pattern of markings, that makes it
desirable. The word chrysoprase comes from the Greek χρυσός chrysos
meaning 'gold' and πράσινον prasinon, meaning 'green'.
Unlike emerald which owes its green color to the presence of chromium,
the color of chrysoprase is due to trace amounts of nickel compounds in
the form of very small inclusions. The nickel reportedly occurs as
different silicates, like kerolite or pimelite (not NiO mineral,
bunsenite, as was reported before). Chrysoprase results from the deep
weathering or lateritization of nickeliferous serpentinites or other
ultramafic ophiolite rocks. In the Australian deposits, chrysoprase
occurs as veins and nodules with brown goethite and other iron oxides in
the magnesite-rich saprolite below an iron and silica cap.
As with all forms of chalcedony, chrysoprase has a hardness of 6–7 on
the Mohs hardness scale and a conchoidal fracture like flint.
The best known sources of chrysoprase are Queensland, Western Australia,
Germany, Poland, Russia, Arizona, California, and Brazil. The
chrysoprase and Ni silicate ore deposit in Szklary, Lower Silesia,
Poland, was probably the biggest European chrysoprase occurrence and
possibly also the biggest in the world.
A very similar mineral to chrysoprase is chrome chalcedony, in which the color is provided by chromium rather than nickel.