Dear Viking Answer Lady:

Did the Vikings invade Wales to any significant degree?

(signed) Concerned Cymro
Herskerinde Gunnora
the Viking Answer Lady
The following document is reprinted here by permission 
but remains the copyright of Herskerinde Gunnora, 
the Viking Answer Lady

 
Gentle Reader,

Although Wales did not experience significant Viking settlement such as occurred in Ireland and in England, still Wales felt the blows of the Northerners. Wales was repeatedly raided, especially by the Norse from the Hiberno-Norse kingdoms of Dublin and Limerick. During the period of the Viking attacks, Wales was divided into several independent kingdoms which were constantly engaged in internal struggles and internecine warfare, which rendered the Welsh unable to present a united front to ward off the new threat from overseas with complete success.

 
 
 
 

Kings like Rhodri ap Merfyn, known as Rhodri Mawr (the Great, 844 to 878 C.E.) and Hywel Dda (the Good, 900 to 950 C.E.) were able to rally large numbers of Welshmen to the defense of their lands with a stubborn resistance, preventing the formation of large Norse kingdoms such as existed elsewhere in the British Isles. Eventually Wales became a place of pilgrimage and religious instruction in later years for the Christianized descendants of the Norse raiders. 


 
More information on the Vikings 
in Wales is available below:

 
The Welsh Sources and Earliest Viking Contacts


The first certain notice of a Viking raid upon Wales occurs in all the Welsh Chronicles (Annales Cambriae, Brut y Tywysogion and Brut y Saeson) in the annals for the year 850 C.E. (note 1), when a certain Cyngen died on the swords of "the Heathen." Some scholars believe that Viking incursions into Wales began even earlier, suggesting that the Vikings who raided the Church on Recru or Lombay Island in 795 C.E. had sailed there from Wales. The inhabitants of Cornwall, known as the West Welsh, were in contact with the Viking raiders as early as 835 C.E., when they contracted with the Danes to fight against the Anglo-Saxon King Ecgberht who had subjugated the Cornish in 823. This alliance of Northman with Welshman against the English was to recur again many times in the coming years. Traditional Welsh poetry also records the Scandinavian presence in Wales; For example, the Arymes Prydein Vawr or "Omen of Great Britain" composed sometime between 835 and 1066 C.E. and preserved in the 13th century manuscript known as The Book of Taliesin states:
Achymot kymry agwyr dulyn
Gwydyl iwerdon mon aphrydyn
Cornyw achludwys eu kynnwys genhyn
Atporyon uyd brython pan dyorfyn
Pell dygoganher amser dybydyn . . .
predicting that the day will come when Cadwalladr and Cynan shall return to deliver the Welsh from their hated Saxon oppressors and peace shall reign over the land. To bring this about, a great confederation of the Scandinavians of Dublin, the Irish, the people of Anglesey, Scotland, Cornwall and Strathclyde shall join the Welsh to deliver the Cymry from their Saxon foes.


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Norse Accounts of Contacts with Wales
When the sagas mention Wales, it is called Bretland in Old Norse. Landnámabók says that the Venerable Bede wrote that the position of the Island of Thule, or Iceland, was "six days sailing north of Bretland."

Heimskringla recounts that Harald Harfagra gave his favorite son, Eirík Bloodaxe, the ships and men to go viking when the boy was only twelve years old: "King Harald gave him five warships, and he went raiding, first in the Baltic, then south around Denmark and around Frísland and Saxland, and he was four years on this expedition. After that he sailed west across the sea, harrying in Scotland, Bretland, Ireland, and Valland, and passed four more years there", ca. 905 to 910 C.E. Later, Heimskringla tells us that Haraldr outfitted his other sons, Ţórgísl and Fróđi, in the same manner, and "they went on Viking expeditions to the West, harrying in Scotland, Bretland, and Ireland."


Coin of Eirik Bloodaxe. The legend reads "ERIC REX" (King Eric) (at British Museum)

Eirík Bloodaxe followed his father Haraldr to the Norwegian throne around 930 C.E., but was forced to flee to England by his half-brother Hakon in about 935. The English king Ćţelstan gave York to Eirík in return for Eirík's conversion to Christianity. While King of York, Heimskringla recounts that Eirík's "land was small in size, and therefore he always went on plundering expeditions in summer, harrying in Scotland, the Hebrides, Ireland, and Bretland, and thus gained wealth for himself." But when Ćţelstan's brother Eadmund succeeded him to the English throne, Eirík found that Eadmund "did not care for Norwegians. He and Eirík were no friends. . .when King Eirík heard of that he went on a viking expedition to the west. From the Orkneys he had with him Arnkel and Erlend, the sons of Turf-Einar. From there he sailed to the Hebrides, and there were many vikings and warrior chieftains who joined his expedition. Then he sailed first to Ireland with all his forces, and took with him as many men from there as he could get. Thereupon he sailed to Bretland and harried there."

Egils saga Skallagrimssonar also mentions Bretland in connection with the Battle of Vinheiđr, which may be the same battle that is described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as the Battle of Brunanburh in 937 C.E.: "Two brothers, Hringr and Ađils, ruled over Bretland, and they paid tribute to King Ćţelstan. It was part of their service that when they were in the king's army they and their people should be in the front ranks in the company with the king's standard. These brothers were fine warriors and not young men." The brothers were probably from Strathclyde Wales, and their tale may represent Scandinavian settlement and rule in some parts of Wales. It is certainly known that Scandinavians did travel through Strathclyde at times, on the Roman road from York to Carslile. There was also a Norse settlement in Cumberland which was probably a part of the Strathclyde Welsh kingdom. It was almost certainly to stop the Welsh and Norse settlers in Wales from aiding the Norsemen who challenged Saxon sovreignity that caused King Eadmund to overrun Strathclyde in 944 C.E. and give it to Malcolm King of Scots in exchange for Malcom's promise to keep the Norse and Welsh in check


King Harald was quite old by the time Thorolf and Bjorg had stayed with Bjorg’s father Brynjolf. The king had several large estates but stayed that winter in the north. He had, among many older sons, one young son named Eirik Bloodaxe. He was being raised by Thorir Hroaldson and quite often stayed at Fjord Province. ~ Source

Norse settlements in Wales are also indicated by The Saga of the Jómsvíkings, ca. 930 to 935 C.E.: "At that time a jarl ruled in Bretland whose name was Stefnir. He had a beloved daughter named Álof. She was wise and much beloved. Palnatóki landed there with his fleet and intended to harry Stefnir's land. But when they learned of that, Álof and her counsellor, Björn inn breski (the Welshman), contrived the plan of asking Palnatóki to come to a banquet in his honor so that he should consider this a land of friends and not harry there. Palnatóki accepted the invitation and came to the feast with all his company. And at that feast Palnatóki asked for the hand of Álof, nor was it hard to win. And straightaway they prepared for their marriage, and at the wedding Jarl Stefnir bestowed on Palnatóki the title of jarl and half his land; and after the jarl's death Palnatóki was to have the whole of the land. Palnatóki stayed there both that summer and the winter following." Palnatóki was the foster-father of Svein Forkbeard, who later became King of Denmark.

Svein Forkbeard was said in Ólafs saga Tryggvassonar later to have visited his foster-father Palnatóki in Bretland, after which he went raiding elsewhere in Wales, "For once upon a time Swein was plundering in Bretland, and at first was victorious, getting possession of much booty; but as he advanced far into the country to a distance from his ships, he was met by a force on horseback, too numerous to be withstood; he himself was taken prisoner, bound, and cast into prison, with Ţórvaldr Kodranson and many other distinguished and important men. The next day there came a powerful duke to the dark dungeon with a large force to fetch Ţórvaldr out of prison; because when his own sons had been captured a short time before, Ţórvaldr had given them their freedom and sent them home to their father. The duke ordered Ţórvaldr to come forth and go away free; but Ţórvaldr swore that he would on no account leave the place alive unless King Svein were released and set free with all his men, and the duke permitted this for Ţórvaldr's sake." The Welsh Chronicles verify Svein's expedition, mentioning that in 995 C.E. that "Svein the son of Haraldr plundered in Manaw," probably Anglesey but perhaps this may be the Isle of Man.

Brennu-Njáls saga also describes Viking raids into Wales by the sons of Njáll, Helgi and Grímr. While sailing towards Iceland, the brothers are set upon by Earl Hákon and captured. Kári Sölmundarson, a retainer of Jarl Sigurđr Hlöđvisson, rescued Helgi and Grímr. Later, Kári asks them to raid with him into Wales: "After that, Kári and the Njálssons sailed to Orkney, where Jarl Sigurđr gave them a cordial welcome. They stayed with Jarl Sigurđr that winter. In the spring, Kári asked the Njálssons to come raiding with him, but Grímr would only agree if Kári came to Iceland with them afterwards. Kári gave his promise, and so they went raiding with him. They raided around Anglesey in the south and all round the Hebrides, then made for Kintyre and landed there. They fought the inhabitants and gathered rich booty before returning to their ships. From there they went to Bretland."

In Orkneyinga saga, Jarl Ţórfinnr Sigurđarson of Orkney put together a huge raiding fleet with the help of King Magnús Barefoot, which engaged the Welsh in the Battle of Menai Straight: " It was a long hard battle, fought first with bows, then hand-to-hand. For a good while no one could tell which way the tide would turn. King Magnús was using a handbow and there was another archer with him, from Halogaland. Hugh the Proud was putting up a brave fight, and was so well-armored that only his eyes were exposed, so King Magnus suggested to the archer that they should both shoot at Hugh together, and that is what they did. One arrow struck Hugh's noseguard, but the other entered the eyehole and pierced his head, and there Hugh the Proud fell. The King got credit for it. The Welsh lost a great many troops and in the end they had to run. King Magnús had won a famous victory . . ."

Eric Bloodaxe

EGIL’S SAGA: CHAPTER 36; Eirik Bloodaxe


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Welsh Names for the Northmen


THE OLD MARLOVIAN by Johannes Werth

The first raiders were Norwegians, known to the Irish as Finn Gaill, for in 854, the chronicles record a new type of Northman appearing upon the Welsh shores. Like the Irish, who called the Danes Dubh Gaill or "black foreigners," the Welsh called the new sea-rovers appearing upon their shores various names describing them as "black":
  • gentiles nigri (the black heathen)
  • y llu du (the black host)
  • kenhedloedd duon (the black nations)
  • y Normanyeit duon (black Normans)
  • dub gint (black heathen, from Irish dubh Gennti)
  • Brithwyr du (black Brithwyr)
  • dieifyl du (black devils)
Some Welsh terms for the Vikings referred to the heathen, non-Christian ways of the Norse Invaders:
  • Gentiles "gentiles"
  • Paganaid "pagans"
Other Welsh names for the Vikings included:
  • Y Cenhedloedd (the nations)
  • Nordmani (northmen)
  • gwyr Dulyn (men from Dublin)
  • y genedyl (the nation)
  • y pobloedd (the peoples)
  • Gwyddyl (Irish, but referring in actuality to the Hiberno-Norse)
  • Daenysseit (Danes)
  • gwyr Denmarc (men of Denmark)
  • Lochlannaigh or Llychynwyr (men of "Lochlann" meaning Norway)
  • Llychlynwys (Scandinavians).

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Wales: a Target for the Norse-Irish Raiders


Hroald and Ohtar raided Wales from Brittany they were defeated by Anglo-saxons and Hroald was killed. ~ Source

Wales, in its central position, situated between the Viking kingdoms of Ireland and the Danelaw, was certain to receive the attentions of the Norse sea-raiders. The Welsh coastline, and particularly the island of Anglesey, was a particular target for Hiberno-Norse aggression, being situated conveniently close to the Norse colony of Dublin. Anglesey was attractive to the raiders, not only being the home of the monastic establishments of Penmon, Ynys Seirol and Caer Gybi, but also as Giraldus Cambrensis states in his Descripto Kambriae,

 
Sicut enim montes Ereri cunctis Walliae fertur totius armentis in unum coactis ad pascua, sic insula Moniae triticei graminis fertilitate toti Walliae fertur aliquamdiu sufficere posse.
Just as, for instance, Mount Snowdon could produce pasture for all the herds of Wales , thus the isle of Mona is so fertile in wheat and meadows to be able to supply produce for some time for the whole of Wales.
It is uncertain whether or not the Norse settled the island, but it seems likeley when one considers that the original Welsh name for the island, Mona, was completely replaced by the Old Norse Öngulsey or Anglesey (though Welsh texts continue to use "Mona" until the present day).

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A Chronology of Viking Raids into Wales



Nicholas Roerich "Guests from Overseas". From the series "Beginnings of Rus'. The Slavs." 1901
  • 795 C.E. .....................Some scholars believe that Viking incursions into Wales began in this year, suggesting that the Vikings who raided the Church on Recru or Lombay Island had sailed there from a previous attack upon Wales. 835 C.E. .....................The inhabitants of Cornwall (the West Welsh) were in contact with the Viking raiders whom they contracted with to fight against the Anglo-Saxon King Ecgberht.  Ecgberht had subjugated the Cornish in 823.
  • 850 C.E. .....................Welsh Annals record that one Cyngen died on the swords of "the Heathen," meaning Viking raiders.
  • 850 to 870 C.E. ..........The southern Welsh districts of Gwent, Glamorgan and Dyfedd suffer Norse attacks.
  • 854 C.E. ...................Vikings referred to as Y Llu Du attacked Môn.
  • 855 or 856 C.E. ........Dubh-Ghenti led by a Norse-Irish chieftain named Horm or Ormr attack Gwynedd, only to be repelled by Rhodri Mawr, who slew Horm.
  • 865 C.E. ...................Óláfr Cuaran and Ivarr Beinlausi, son of Ragnar Lođbrokk, the co-rulers of Dublin raid Strathclyde (also known as Cumbria or Cumberland)
  • 870 C.E. ...................Óláfr Cuaran and Ívarr Beinlausi beseige the Welsh stronghold of Alcluith, which fell after four months to the beseigers.
  • 871 C.E. ..................The Irish Annals record that Óláfr Cuaran and Ívarr Beinlausi returned to Dublin after their raids against the Strathclyde Welsh, Albans, and Saxons with two hundred ships and English, Welsh, and Pictish captives to be sold into slavery.
  • 875 C.E. ...................Hálfdan, son of Ragnarr Lođbrokk, attacks Deira and Cambridge, raiding heavily among the Strathclyde Welsh and the Picts of Galloway.
  • 876 C.E. ...................The Norse attack in the famous Sunday Battle of Anglesea (Gweith Duw Sul)
  • 876 C.E. ..................The Western Host, the naval force supporting the Danish attack upon King Alfred of Mercia and led by Ivarr Beinlausi and Hubba, the sons of Ragnarr Lođbrokk, is off the Welsh coatline, indulging in the occasional raiding of the Welsh as well as maintaining the campaign against Alfred. The fleet wintered in South Wales.
  • 877 C.E. .................Rhodri Mawr forced to flee to Ireland to shelter from the raiders.
  • 878 C.E. ..................Norse mercenaries in the employ of Hywel ab Ieuaf ab Idwal the Bald destroy the Church of Clynnog Fawr and attack the Lleyn territory in Gwynedd. Hywel had hired the Norsemen to assist in his fight for the throne of Gwynedd.
  • 879 C.E. ..................The gentiles or Norsemen captured Iago ab Idwal the Bald, leaving the way clear for Hywel to become king of Gwynedd.
  • 890 C.E. ..................Y Normanyeit Duon or black Northmen attack Castell Baldwin in Powys.
  • 893 C.E. ..................The Danes, led by a man named Haesten, marched up beside the Thames, crossed over  and ravaged the Severn Valley.  Welshmen rom Gwent and Glynwysing, as well as some of Anarawd's men from Gwynedd, cooperated with Alfred the Great to battle and defeat the raiders at Buttingtune on the Severn shore.
  • 895 to 896 C.E. .......Danes wintering in Quatbridge in the Severn valley harry into South Wales, including Brycheiniog, Gwent, Gwynllwg, Morgannwg and Buellt.
  • 902 C.E. ..................Irish capture the fortress of Dublin in Ireland, driving the Dublin Vikings across the sea to North Wales.  They were opposed by Welsh forces under the command of either Hywel ap Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr or his younger brother Clydog, driving the Norsemen into the vicinty of Chester.
  • 903 C.E. ..................A party of Danes referred to as Dub Gint or black pagans under the command of Ingimundr attacked the Welsh in pitched battle at Ros Meilon or Osmeliavn, perhaps near Holyhead.
  • 904 C.E. ..................The Danes kill Mervyn ap Rhodri Mawr in a retaliatory raid.
  • 905 to 910 C.E. .......Eirík Bloodaxe, son of King Haraldr Harfagra of Norway, raids Wales, Scotland, Ireland and Brittany.
  • 913 to 918 C.E. .......A renewed Norse force re-takes Dublin, establishing Sihtric as king. In 918 Dublin Norse raiders attack Anglesey.
  • 915 C.E. ..................A large Viking fleet based on the Continent  under the command of Óttarr and Hróaldr ravaged Gwent as far inland as Archenfield, capturing a bishop named Cyfeiliog ("Cameleac" in the chronicle), who was later ransomed by the Saxon king Edward the Elder for a sum of forty pounds.
  • 918 to 952 C.E. .......For reasons unknown, the Norse cease raids on Anglesea and Wales, perhaps due in part to the unified military response to raids organized by Hywel, who had consolidated much of the northern and southern portions of Wales under his rule, and established diplomatic relations with the English which allowed Wales and England to support one another against the Scandinavian onslaught.
  • 937 C.E. ..................Welsh forces join with Scandinavian and Scottish troops to fight against the English in the Battle of Brunanburh.
  • 952 to 1000 C.E. ......Annual Viking raids upon the Welsh coast resume.
  • 952 C.E. ...................Brut y Tywysogion records that Hirmawr and Anarawd ap Gwriad (possibly the sons of King Now ap Gwriad of Glamorgan) died at the hands of the paganaid Vikings.
  • 961 C.E. ...................The annals record that "the sons of Abloec  ravaged Caer Gybi and Lleyn." Abloec (from the Irish Amhlaoibh) meaning Óláfr Cuaran, ruler of the Dublin Norse.  Ólaf's sons included Gluniarain ("Iron-Knee"), Sitric Silkenbeard, Ragnall, Aralt, Amancus, and possibly Gillapatraic. Caer Gybi is modern Holyhead, Anglesey.  It is interesting to note that Óláfr Cuaran professed Christianity in 943, and his son Sitric's cross-imprinted coinage shows that he likewise accepted the Christian faith, yet this did not seem to affect their decision to attack churches and monastic institutions outside their own domains.
  • 963 C.E. ...................The monastic establishment at Towyn or Tywyn raided by Vikings. Aberffraw in Anglesea, royal seat of the kings of Gwynedd, was attacked by paganaid.
  • 968 C.E. ..................Ívarr of Limerick is driven out of Ireland by King Mathgamhain of Munster. Ívarr's response was to sail west to Wales to try and carve a new kingdom there.  The Limerick Norse were apparently repulsed  by "the king of Britain" and the next year Ívarr sailed back to Limerick, slew Beolan Littill and his son, and re-established his rule on the larger  islands of the Shannon.
  • 971 C.E. ..................King Magnús Haraldsson, ruler of Man and Limerick,  leads an attack on the monastic house of Penmon in Anglesey. 
  • 972 C.E. ..................Gođfriđr Haraldsson, brother of King Magnús of Man and Limerick, attacks and conquers Anglesey.  The Welsh annalists record that a King Edgar gave "the men of Gotfrid sanction to remain in Mona."
  • 977 C.E. ..................Gođfriđr Haraldsson succeeds his brother Magnús as king.
  • 980 C.E. ..................Gođfriđr Haraldsson allies with King Cystennin ab Iago of Gwynedd to support Cystennin against Hywel ab Ieuaf, who was attempting to capture the Gwenedd throne for himself.  The combined Welsh-Danish force  devastated Anglesey from where they crossed to Lleyn and continued ravaging the peninsula until Hywel's troops faced them in the Battle of Hirbarth, where Cysteinn was killed.
  • 982 to 1000 C.E. .....St. David's and its religious sanctuary (medieval Menevia) becomes an especial focus of Norse attacks.

The Church of St. David at Menevia


  • 982 C.E. ..................Gođfriđr Haraldsson launches a campaign into Southern Wales, heavily raiding Dyved and despoiling the Church of St. David at Menevia. Gođfriđr met the Welsh in battle at the Battle of Llanwannawc or Llangweithenauc.
  • 987 C.E. ..................Gođfriđr Haraldsson again attacks Anglesey with his kenhedloedd duon (the black gentiles). Wales was experiencing a time of civil war and internecine battling as the kings of the north and south attempted to enlarge their realms at the expense of their neighbors. King Maredudd ab Owain of South Wales attacked and killed King Cadwallon of Gwynedd, brother of Hywel ab Ieuaf, annexing Gwynedd to his own lands. At this stage of the hostilities, Gođfriđr was summoned by the deposed Gwynedd royal family, and won an overwhelming victory over Maredudd ab Owain at the Battle of Mannan. Maredudd had a thousand men slain, andother two thousand men captured, and was forced to retreat to Ceredigion and Dyfed. Maredudd was later forced to ransom his captured Welshmen at a penny per head.
  • 988 C.E. ..................The Norse raid Church of St. David at Menevia, as well as the monastic houses of Llanbadarn Fawr near Aberystwyrth, Llandudoch (modern St. Dogmaels) near Cardigan, Llancarfan near Glamorgan, and Llanilltrud, also near Glamorgan.
  • 992 C.E. ..................Church of St. David at Menevia destroyed for the third time by the Norse raiders. Maredudd ab Owain, king of Dyfed, hired Norse mercenaries for his retaliatory campaign against Edwin ab Einion, king of Glamorgan. 
  • 993 C.E. ..................Anglesey was raided again by the "black pagans." 
  • 995 C.E. .................."Mannaw," probably Anglesey, was raided by King Svein Forkbeard of Denmark. 
  • 997 to 998 C.E. .......Intense Danish attacks in the Svern district and southwest England, perhaps caused by increased pressure put on the Hiberno-Norse by Ard-righ Brian Boru and King Mael Seachlinn. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports: In this year the army went about Devonshire into the mouth of the Severn and there harried as well in Cornwall as in North Wales and in Devonshire; and then landed at Watchet and there wrought great evil in burnings and man-slayings. . . . Thence they rounded Land's End and entered the mouth of the Tamar.
  • 999 C.E. ..................Church of St. David at Menevia destroyed and Bishop Morgeneu slain by Vikings.


A raiding party of Vikings referred to as Dub Gint or black pagans under the command of Ingimundr

attacked the Welsh in a battle at Ros Meilon or Osmeliavn, perhaps near Holyhead.
~ Source
  • 1002 C.E. ................Norse raiders attack Dyfed, but this time spare the Church of St. David at Menevia. 
  • 1005 C.E. ...............Ard-Righ Brian Boru sends a fleet composed of Norsemen from Dublin, Waterford, Wexford and Munster to "levy royal tribute" (i.e., plunder) in Wales. The haul from this expedition was to be divided in three parts, with a third going to the King of Dublin, another third going to the warriors of Leinester and Munster, and the remainder to professors of sciences and arts and the needful. This may have been a clever tactic on Brian's part to keep his fractious people from warring on one another. 
  • 1012 C.E. ................Earl Eodwin Streona of Mercia led an English attack against the Church of St. David at Menevia making use of the Danish ships which King Ethelred took into his service that year. 
  • 1022 C.E. ................Eileifr, a Dane in the service of King Cnut, raided Dyfed and the Church of St. David at Menevia. 
  • 1039 C.E. ................Meurig ap Hywel, who would later become King of Morgannwg, was captured by the Norse and later ransomed. 
  • 1042 C.E. ................King Hywel ab Edwin ab Einon ab Owen of Deheubarth defeated Viking marauders who had been raiding Dyfed in a battle at Pwll Dyfach. Another group of Dublin Norsemen captured King Gruffydd ap Llywellyn of Gwynedd and held him for ransom. (Note 2) 
  • 1044 C.E. ................King Hywel ab Edwin, had been attacked by King Gruffydd ap Llywellyn and defeated at Pencader in 1041 as a part of Gruffydd's bid to annex portions of Southern Wales. Hywel turned to the Norse for assistance and returned to Wales with a fleet of twenty longships to try to regain his kingdom. Gruffydd met the Norse at the mouth of the river Towy and defeated them, killing Hywel in the battle. Hywel was succeeded by Gruffydd ap Rhydderch ab Iestyn. 
  • 1044 to 1052 C.E. ..King Gruffydd ap Rhydderch dealt with frequent Scandinavian invasions, leading him to the desperate expedient of despoiling portions of his own country, especially the coastlines, in order to make raids into his lands less appealing to the Norse. 
  • 1049 C.E. ................King Gruffydd ap Rhydderch made an alliance with Norse raiders to attack the kingdom of Gwent Iscoed which King Meurig ap Hywel ab Owen of Glamorgan had forcibly annexed. Gruffydd led a raiding party of thirty-six longships into the estuary of the Usk where they plundered the surrounding countryside, then crossed over the Wye and burnt the English manor of Dyddenhame or Tidenham. Bishop Ealdred of Worcester was incensed by the raid and raised forces to oppose Gryffydd, however Welsh traitors in the bishop's ranks sent word to Gryffudd, causing the Welsh king to attack with his Norsemen to overcome the English forces.

Wales : A large Viking fleet arriving from the Éuropean continent ravaged Gwent as far inland
as Archenfield, capturing the bishop of Llandaff, named Cameleac, who was later ransomed
by the Wessex king Edward the Elder for a sum of forty pounds.
~ Source

  • 1053 C.E. ................King Gruffydd ap Rhydderch raids the English border using Norse mercenaries. 
  • 1055 C.E. ................Earl Aelfgar of Mercia, after being exiled from England, comes to King Gruffydd ap Llywellyn of Gwynedd with eighteen longships full of Norse mercenaries. Gruffydd married the earl's daughter, and assembled a Welsh army to supplement Aelfgar's forces. Together the armies invaded Hereforshire and defeated the defender, Earl Ralph, razing Hereford and despoiling the relics of King Ethelbert which had been housed there at the church. King Edward of England responded by appointing Earl Harold Godinsson to respond to the threat. The Welsh retreated into South Wales, and Harold eventually negotiated a peace with then at Bilingsley near Boulston in Archenfield, which resulted in Aelfgar's restoration to his earldom and Gruffydd swearing to become Ethelbert's vassal.. 
  • 1056 C.E. ................King Gruffydd again deals with a Scandinavian fleet under the command of Magnús Barefoot, son of Harald Hardrađa, to press an attack into Herefordshire to attack the prelate Leofgar. Earl Harold Godwinsson once again responded to the threat, dispersing the Norse mercenaries, and again Gruffydd swore allegiance to the Saxon king. 
  • 1058 C.E. ................Earl Aelfar of Mercia is again banished from Mercia, and again recruits Scandinavian forces and King Ruffydd to successfully assist him in regaining his eardom.
  • 1075 C.E. ................Gruffydd ap Cynan, son of the exiled king of Gwynedd and of Ragnhildr, grandddaughter of the Norse king of Dublin Sihtric (Siggtryggr) Silkenbeard, had been raised in Dublin and fostered by a Norse family. Seeking to reclaim his patrimony, Gruffydd sailed to Abermenai with a fleet of Norse mercenaries, supplemented with men from Anglesey, Lleyn and Arvon, plus Norman troops under the command of Robert of Rhuddlan. Gruffydd's forces defeated the usurper King Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon of Powys and his cousin, King Trahaearn ap Caradog of Arwystli at the Battle of the Bloody Acre (Gwaeterw). Later Gruffydd battled his former Norman ally, Robert of Rhuddlan, and disaffected men of Lleyn turned on Gruffydd's Norse household troops in a treacherous night attack, probably because Gruffydd had been brought up in a Norse environment and acted like a Norseman rather than being the typical Welsh prince they expected. Trahaearn rallied his forces and united with the men of Lleyn. Gruffyd assembled the men of Anglesey, Arvon, and his Norse troops, and met Trahaearn at the Battle of Bron yr Erw, near Clynnog Fawr. Gruffydd's Norse foster-father, Cerit, was killed in this battle. Gruffydd's forces were defeated, and he sailed with his remaining army to the island of Adron, which later was renamed by the Norse as "Skerries" then returned to Wexford in Ireland. 
  • 1076 or 1977 C.E. ..Gruffydd ap Cynan appealed to King Diarmaid son of Enna, ruler of the Dublin Norse, who supported Gruffydd with men and thirty ships. Gruffydd's army landed at Abermenai and began harassing Trahaearn's forces. Though he could not dislodge Trahaearn from the throne of Gwynedd, Gruffydd did force Traehaearn to remove his people and possessions from Lleyn and Ardudwy into the interior canton of Meirionydd, leaving Gruffydd free to take control of Llyen, Arvon, and Anglesey. Further conquests were prevented by squabbles among Gruffydd's Norse troops. Gruffydd refused to allow the Norse to plunder his lands, which was part of the spoils of war which they expected. As a result, the Dubliners forced Gruffydd to return to Ireland with them. 
  • 1080 C.E. ................Norse "gentiles" attacked the Church of St. David at Menevia and slew the Bishop Abraham. 
  • 1081 C.E. ................Gruffydd ap Cynan again appealed to King Diarmaid, who presented Gruffydd with a fleet assembled at Waterford, manning it with Norse, Irish, and Welsh troops. Gruffydd's plan this time was to land in South Wales and strike northwards, so the fleet landed at Porthglais, just slightly southwest of the Church of St. David at Menevia. Gruffydd sought a blessing for his troops from the bishop at St. David's, then Gruffydd's forces, with his ally King Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deuhebarth, marched north and met the enemy at a place called Mynydd Carn, engaging them in battle just before nightfall. Gruffydd's victory was short-lived, for Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury, with the aid of Earl Roger of Montgomery, lured Gruffydd into a trap at Rhug in Edeirnion, taking him prisoner. Gruffydd was kept jailed in Chester for several years. The Earl of Shrewsbury further rendered Gruffydd's forces harmless by decreeing that each man of Gruffydd's army would have his right thumb struck off, thus preventing them from handling bows or the dreaded axes that were their primary weapon. ca. 
  • 1087 C.E. ..........Gruffydd ap Cynan went to the Orkneys to assemble a fleet of Norse warriors to help him conquer the kingdom of Venedotia in North Wales. King Gođred Mac Sytric, ruler of Man, the Hebrides and Dublin, was willing to assist Gruffydd in his venture and provided him sixty ships and troops to man them. Gruffydd's forces sailed first to Anglesey, where they met Norman forces in battle. Gruffydd himself is recorded to have fought with the Danish double-edged axe. Afterwards, as recorded in The Life of St. Gwynllyw ca. 1100, Gruffydd's Norsemen sailed up the Severn estuary and raided the Church of St. Gwynllyw (modern St. Woollo's Church): In the reign of William the old king of England, after the English had been conquered and brought under his victorious sway, Gruffydd, the king of Venedotia, driven by war from all borders of Britain and in dread and fear of the attack which his enemies were plotting to make upon him, sailed in haste to the islands of the Orcades in order to avoid his enemies whom victory had made cruel, and because he wished to be on his guard and enjoy protection. Remaining there in the dilemma of wanting to plunder and not to build and of preparing to avenge his expulsion, he incited many islanders to piracy, to fatal gain and invasion. Thus banded together and roused to an evil purpose, and after filling twenty-four battleships with the assembled raiders, they sailed under Gruffydd's leadership through the Irish Sea, and, after a long and perilous voyage, arrived at the Severn Straight that washes the shores of Glamorgan. Then sailing along the length of the straight they sought plunder with the greatest avidity and cast anchor in the mouth of the river Usk. Securing the fleet, they seize battle axes and spears, and thus armed manfully scour the plains and woods. On scouring these they collect immense booty; those of the inhabitants who have been warned by sentries to take flight, and those taken unawares are led to the fleet by impious hands. Seeing the church of Saint Gwynllyw bolted and thinking that there were valuables within for safe custody, the iniquitous pirates burst the bolt, broke in and entered. They seized whatever article of value and use that was found; and after the unholy theft they left the temple of God pillaged.
  • 1088 C.E. ................Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth in South Wales, was exiled from his country by the sons of Bleddyn. Rhys fled to seek asylum in Ireland, and there Rhys employed a fleet of Norse-Irish warriors to restore him to his throne, paying them with many captives for sale as slaves. Returning to Wales with his Norse allies, Rhys conquered the usurper at Penlecheru or Llych crei. Gruffydd ap Cynan again raids Wales with his Norse warriors, looting in the Norman territories of Rhos and Tegeingl, capturing cattle and men for slaves. Later the same year, Gruffydd again raided Wales, landing under Great Orme's Head with three ships full of Norse warriors. Robert of Rhuddlan was awakened from a nap in his castle of Deganwy and told that the Norse raiders were taking the cattle from the fields and enslaving women and children. With no time to raise his own levies, Robert rushed to the landing point accompanied by only one knight. The gesture was a fatal one, as Gruffydd's men captured and killed him, spiking his head on the lead ship. 
  • 1093 C.E. ................King Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth, was killed by Norman invaders of Brycheiniog. His young son Gruffydd was taken by his kin to safety among the Norse-Irish to protect him from the Normans and Cadwgan ap Bleddyn. 
  • 1094 C.E. ................Gruffydd ap Cynan with his Norse household troops and a Welsh ally, Cadwgan of Ceredigion, rallied the Welsh against Norman invaders, eventually driving the Normans out of Wales and placing Gruffydd at last on his ancestral throne of Gwynnedd. 
  • 1098 C.E. ................Norman earls invaded Gruffydd's lands. The Normans, led by the Earls of Chester and Montgomery, were joined by traitorous Welshmen from Tegeingl, who led the Normans across the Welsh border. Gruffydd was forced to retreat to the defendable island of Anglesey. Gruffydd ap Cynan allied with the Hiberno-Norse to protect his lands in Wales from the Normans invading from North Wales, and received sixteen longships full of Norse warriors. The Normans, led by Hugh, Earl of Chester, persuaded the Danes to desert to the Norman side of the conflict in return for payment in slaves, however failed to keep their promise to the raiders: The perjured traitors of Danes who had betrayed Gruffydd were expecting the promises which Hugh had given them, and captives of men, women, youths and maidens; and he paid them like a faithful man to an unfaithful, confirming the divine ordinance, for he had succeeded in collecting all the toothless, deformed, lame, one-eyed, troublesome, feeble hags and offered them to them in return for their treachery. When they saw this they loosened their fleet and made for the deep towards Ireland. Gruffydd, Cadwgan, and Owain ap Cadwgan were all forced to flee to Ireland. By sheer coincidence, at the same time, Magnús Barefoot, son of Harald Hardrađa, arrived in Wales, engaging the Normans in the Battle of Anglesey Sound in which Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by Magnús himself and the Normans driven back. 
  • 1099 C.E. ................Gruffydd ap Cynan and Cadwgan returned to Wales after hearing of the victory won by Magnús Barefoot. Gruffydd began a lengthy rule, marked by peace, prosperity, and gradual expansion, making peace with the Earl of Chester to recover Anglesey. Gruffydd always maintained a household troop manned by Norse warriors throughout his reign, but the Welsh finally accepted his rule anyway, preferring a man of Welsh ancestry over the hated Normans. Gruffydd's Norse- Irish background affected Welsh culture during this period in ther arts, music and literature. Gruffydd himself became well-known as a patron of the arts.

Wales: Vikings have been wintering at Quatford , but in the spring they attacked the Southern Wales kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Gwent, and the Gwynllg region of Glywyssing. Asser recorded that Elisedd of Brycheiniog requested help from Alfred the great, but another reason for this may also be due to pressure from Anarawd ap Rhodri, the powerful king of Gwynedd and Deheubarth who is keen on expanding his areas of control. Dyfed's Hyfaidd ap Bledrig may be another southern Welsh king who, during his lifetime, similarly appeals to Alfred for aid and support to ward off Anarawd. ~ Source
  • 1115 C.E. ................Gruffyd ap Rhys, rightful king of Deheubarth, returns to Wales with Norse mercenaries to try and regain his throne. 
  • 1126 C.E. ................King Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth is forced again to flee to Ireland and seek sanctuary from his Norse friends there. Other Welsh refugees were welcomed by the court of King Murchath, including Howel ab Ithel, Lord of Rhos and Rhufoniog, Owain ap Cadwgan, and Madog ap Rhiryd. 
  • 1137 C.E. ................Gruffydd ap Cynan dies, leaving his kingdom to his sons, Owain and Cadwalladr, who summoned Norse mercenaries for a campaign against the Normans in Ceredigion. Fifteen Norse ships met with the Welsh land forces at the estuary of the Teifi, then beseiged Cardigan Castle. The attack on the castle failed. The Norse, deprived of their expected plunder, crossed the river and attacked the Tironian Benedictine monstary of St. Dogmaels (Llandudoch). 
  • 1144 C.E. ................Gruffydd's sons Cadwalladr and Owain begin fighting. Cadwalladr treacherously killed Owain's nephew Anarawd of Deheubarth. Owain was incensed, and sent his son Hywel to invade Cadwalladr's territory. Cadwalladr sent to Ireland for help, resulting in a Norse fleet sailing to Abermenai, led by Ţórkell, brother of King Ragnall of Dublin. 
  • 1143 or 1144 C.E. ..Cadwgan ab Owain Gwynedd hired Norse mercenaries from Ireland to combat his brother Owain. However, when the Norse arrived in Wales, they found that the brothers had reconciled. To ensure that they were paid as contracted, the Norsemen seized Cadwgan and held him for ransom, receiving 2,000 slaves to release him. 
  • 1146 C.E. ...............Welshmen from south Bregh won a victory over invading Dublin Norsemen during which King Ragnall Ţórkellsson was killed, along with a warleader named Óttarr Óttarrsson, and Herulfr Yscherwlf. 


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Scandinavian Influence 
On Welsh Art, Music and Literature


King Gruffydd ap Cynan of Gwynedd ~ Source

King Gruffydd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, of Norse ancestry himself and raised in the Norse court at Dublin, did much to introduce Scandinavian influences into Welsh art, music, and literature. Gruffydd brought Norse-Irish skalds to court as well as patronizing Welsh bards.

Literary parallels between the Welsh Mabinogion and Irish sagas display borrowings by the Welsh tales from the Irish. Scandinavian influences also played a significant role, especially in the tale of Branwen ferch Llyr or The Mabinogi of Branwen, which shows themes from the Nibelungeleid and the Guđrun cycles, Volsunga saga, and Ţidreks saga. Scandinavian themes also find a place in the History of Gruffydd ap Cynan, where Gruffydd's ancestry is said to include King Haraldr Harfagra, the famous Viking Rollo, and Saint Óláfr the King.

Musical traditions in Wales were also influenced by Gruffydd's taste for the Irish pipes, as well as for harping in the Hiberno-Norse style. Gruffydd maintained a royal harper, Gellan or Crellan, until the musician was killed in a raid. Gruffydd's court also sponsored competitions for musicians and minstrels, among whom transplanted Norse and Norse-Irish performers competed.


Coat of Arms retroactively attributed to Gryffudd ap Cynan ~ Credit: AlexD

Gruffudd ap Cynan - Wikipedia

Gruffudd ap Cynan


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Norse Settlements in Wales

Due to the fact that the Welsh managed such a dogged resistance to invasion, the Scandinavians never established the large and prosperous settlements in Wales such as they had in England and Ireland. It is widely accepted that a colony of Scandinavians settled on both sides of the great fjord of Milford Haven in South Pembrokeshire. There may also have been a Norse colony in Gower, the peninsula that extends about 18 miles westward of Swansea. Another Scandinavian settlement in Wales was situated in the low-lying coastal plain between Neath, Cardiff, and Newport, which was a part of the kingdoms of Morgannwg and Gwent. In Glamorgan, the evidence of charters shows a significant number of Norse names, indicating a Scandinavian settlement in that area as well.

Many of the Scandinavians living in Wales were traders. The commodities that they dealt in were varied, but the largest and most lucrative trade was in Welsh slaves. After slaves, the next most valuable trade was in wheat, for Ireland imported all its wheat, and a goodly portion came from Wales. Another expensive Welsh trade item were the fine Welsh horses, for which there was a flourishing trade. Other commodities that were handled by Scandinavian merchants included honey, malt, wine, furs, hides, whale oil, butter, and woolen cloth.


Caldey Abbey from the village green

Some modern Welsh locations which bear Norse names, or which had Norse names in the medieval period include:

In Penbrokeshire

Amroth Castle, located near medieval Eirwere, Eyewer, Erwere, or Earewear. The name is probably derived from O.N. eyrr, "sand bank or gravel bank" and O.N. ver or O.E. wer, "weir".

Caldey Island, known previously as Caldea alias insula, Insula Caldei, Caldei, Kaldey, Caldey, Calday, or Chalde Isle. "Cold Isle," from O.N. kald, "cold" and O.N. -ey, "island." The Welsh knew this island as Ynys Pyr prior to the arrival of the Norse.

Colby, also known as Coleby or Colbi, from the O.N. proper name Kolli and Danish -by or O.N. -býr, "a farm".

Derby, also known as Darby, from the O.N. diur, "deer" and Danish -by or O.N. -býr, "a farm".

Emsger, a small rock in the island group known as the Bishop and his Clerks. Also known as Emskir or Emskyr. The second element is from O.N. sker, "a skerry, an isolated rock in the sea."

Fishguard in North Pembrokeshire, was also known as Fissigart, Fisgard, Fysgard, Fiscarde, Fiscard, Ffiskard, Fishgard, Fyshcard, Fisshecard, Fishingard, Fissingard, Fyshingegard, Fysshyngarde, Fyshinggard, Ffishingard or Ffishinggard. From O.N. fiskr, "a fish" and garđr, "an enclosure." Fistard, on the southwest of the Isle of Man, is identically derived. The name probably refers to the location as being an ideal one for catching fish, and the harbor at Fishguard is an excellent one that would have attracted Hiberno-Norse traders.

Freystrop, also known as Hechfreysstrop, Hegh Freistrop, Freysthorp, Freysthrop, Ffreystrop, Freystrep, Freystrope, Freistrop, Freystroppe, Ffreistroppe, Ffraistrop, Ffrestrope, or High Frestropp. Freyr could have been either the god's name or the personal name of a Norse settler, while the second element is O.N. or O.E. ţorp, "a village or hamlet", or in Danish, "hamlet, or a daughter settlement from an older village."

Gateholm, also known as Gotholm, Goteholme, Gatholme, or Gatoholme, meaning "Goat Island" from O.N. geit "sheep" or O.E. gat "a goat" while the second element is hólmr, "an island."

Gelliswick, also known as Gelyeswiche, Gellyswycke, Gellyswyck, Gellys weeke, or Gelliswik maning "Gelli's Bay." From the O.N. name Gellir and O.N. vík, "a bay." Other "-vik" names in Pembrokeshire include Helleswick, Little Wick, and Wick in Skomer Island.

Goultrop Roads, also known as Goldhap, Goldetoppe, Goltopp, Galtopp or Galtop roade. This name probably was originally Galdhop, from O.N. goltr, "a boar or hog" and O.N. hóp, "an inlet or bay". Galtres, another Welsh placename, also derives from goltr with the second element being O.N. hris, "brushwood."

Grassholm, also known as Gresse Holme, Gresholme or Crasum, meaning "Grass Island. From O.N. gras or O.E. gćrs, "grass" and O.N. hólmr, "an island." The Old Norse name has suuplanted the original Welsh name of Gwales in Penvro.

Hasguard, also known as Huscart, Huscard, Huscarde, Hustarde, Houscard, Hascarde, Haskard, Haiskard or Hascard. The first element is O.N. hús, "house," and the second element seems to be O.N. skarđ, "notch, cleft, mountain pass."

Haverfordwest, also known as Haverfordia, Haverford, Hareford, havreford, Havriford, Harford or Haresford. From O.N. hafri, "oats," or O.N. hafr or O.E. hćfer, "buck, he-goat," and O.N. fjörđr, "fjord or firth" or O.E. ford, "ford, river-crosssing." Since the river Cleddau can be forded at this location at low tide, the name probably meant "Goat-Ford."

Lydstep, also known as Loudshope, Ludsopp, Ludesope, or Ludsop Haven. The first part is probably an O.E. personal name, Hlud, while the last part is from O.N. hóp, "an inlet or bay".

Midland Island, also known as Middelholm, Midelholm, Middelesholme, Myddelholm, Middleholm, Mydland Island, or Mydlande Ilande, meaning "Middle Island" from O.N. međal, "middle," and O.N. hólmr, "an island." Midland Island lies between Skomer Island and the mainland, separated from the mainland by Jack Sound and from Skomer Island by Little Sound.

Milford, also known as de Milverdico portu, Mellferth, Melford, Meleford, Melford Haven, Milleford, Mylleford, Mylford Havon, Muleford, Mulleford, or Mulford, from O.N. melr, "sandbank, sandhill" and O.N. fjörđr, "fjord or firth," since the name refers to the fjord formed by the estuary of the Cleddau.

Musselwick, also known as Muskelwik, Musselwyk, or Moslewyk, meaning "Mussel Bay." The first element seems to be from O.E. muscle, "a mussel" and O.N. vík, "a bay."

Ramsey Island, also known as insula de Ramesey, Ramesey, or Ramsey, from the O.N. personal name Hrafn, "raven," and O.N. -ey, "island." The old Welsh name was Ynys Tyfanog.

Skokholm Island, also known as Scogholm, Schockholm, Scokholm, Skokeholme, Scoulkholme, Stockholm, Scokum, Stokeholm, Scopeholme, Scoupholme, Scugholm or Slowcom Iland, with original spellings probably being "Stockholm" with a "t" rather than the "k". This would make the name derive from O.N. stokkr, "log, tree, treetrunk, chest. If the correct spelling is with the "k", then the word might derive from O.N. skokkr, "A trunk or chest, a ship's hulk." The second element is O.N. hólmr, "an island," giving a meaning of something like "Island of Logs."

Skomer Island, also Skalmeye, Skalmey, Scalmey, Skalney, Scalme, Schalmey or Scomer, from O.N. skálm, "a short-sword" based on the shape of the island, which appears to have been "cloven" by a sword where two inlets, North and South HAven, cut into the island forming a narrow area called The Neck. The second element is O.N. hólmr, "an island," giving a meaning of "Cloven Island."

Steynton, also Steintona, Steinton, Steynton, Staynton or Stanton, from O.N. steinn, "stone" or the proper name, Steinn and O.N. or O.E. -tun, "farm," giving a meaning of either "Steinn's farm" or "farm built of stone."

In Gower

Swansea, also Sweynesse, Sueinesea, Sweinesei, Castra de Sweines, Sueinnesha, Sweinesheie, Sweyneseye, Swayneseye, Suenesel, Castellus de Swenes, Swenishie, Sweness Castrum, Suineshć or Swaensey, from a first element based on the O.N. personal name Sveinn, "boar or swine," although jusgjing by the early spellings, the first element may instead have been from O.N. sćr, sjar, sjor or O.E. , "sea", and the last element is O.N. -ey, "island," thus either "Sveinn's Island" or "Sea Island."

Burry Holmes, also St. Kenyth atte Holmes, Holmes en Gower or the Holmes, from O.N. hólmr, "an island."

Worms Head, also Wormeshead, from O.N. örmr, "snake, serpent, dragon." Great Orme's Head in North Wales has the same derivation.

Near Cardiff

Clakkeston, from the O.N. personal name Klakkr and O.N. or O.E. -tun, "farm," meaning "Klakkr's Farm".

Homri, also Hornby or Hornbye, from the O.N. personal name Horni and Danish -by or O.N. -býr, "a farm," maning "Horni's Farm".

Laleston, also Lagelest, Lagelstun, Lagelston, Laghelestune, Lachelestone, Lawelstone, Laleston, Laliston, Llalliston, Laelston or Lahelestuna, from the O.N. nickname Lageles, derived from O.N. löglauss"lawless." The second element is O.N. or O.E. -tun, "farm."

Lamby, also Langby, from O.N. langr, "long," and Danish -by or O.N. -býr, "a farm," meaning "Long Farm".

Womanby, also Hundemanby, Houndemanneby, Homandesby, Homanby, Homanbye, Whomanby, or Woman baye, from O.N. hundasveinn, "dog-keeper or kennel-boy", and Danish -by or O.N. -býr, "a farm," making the original name "Dog-keeper's Farm".


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Christian Norsemen and Wales

As Christianity became more widespread in Northern Europe, eventually even the fierce Northmen were converted to the Christian faith. Although the Welsh did not contribute extensively to the conversion of the northern pagans, some Scandinavians came to Wales on pilgrimage, for religious instruction, and to enter holy orders.

At Penmon in Anglesey was the most celebrated religious seminary in Gwynedd, which eventually became a popular location for Christian Norsement to attend. The institution of Penmon had a subordinate house on Ynys Lannog, which by medieval times was being called Ynys Seriol, after Saint Seriol, the founder of the Penmon house, but this secondary location was so heavily patronised by Norse converts that it eventually became known only by the Norse name Priesthólm.


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Notes
(1) From about 850 C.E., the various Welsh chronicles are one year behind the true reckoning, thus when a Welsh chronicle indicates that an event occrred in 850, the event is properly dated to 851 C.E. Dates listed in this article are corrected dates rather than the actual incorrect dates from the chronicles.

(2) From about 1040 C.E., the Welsh chronicles are two years behind the true reckoning. In other words, if the Welsh Chronicle states that an event occurred in 1040, the actual date should be 1042 C.E.


Bibliography
  1. Charles, B. G. Old Norse Relations With Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press Board. 1934.
  2. Fell, Christine, trans. Egils saga. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1975. ISBN 0-8020-2185-9.
  3. Hollander, Lee M., trans. The Saga of the Jómsvíkings. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1955. ISBN 0-292-77623-3.
  4. Jones, Heather (Mistress Tangwystyl), personal correspondence dated 7 August 1987.
  5. Jones, Thomas, trans.. Brenhinedd y Saesson or the Kings of the Saxons. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1971.
  6. Jones, Thomas trans. Brut Y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes Peniarth MS. 20 Version. 1952: Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1985. ISBN 0-7083-0103-7.
  7. Magnusson, Magnus and Hermann Pálsson, trans. Njal's Saga. New York: Penguin. 1960. ISBN 0-14-044103-4.
  8. Pálsson, Hermann and Paul Edwards, trans. Orkneyinga Saga. New York: Penguin. 1978. ISBN 0-14-044383-5.
  9. Sephton, John, trans. The Saga of King Olav Tryggwason who Reigned Over Norway A.D. 995 t o A.D. 1000 London: Nutt. 1895.
  10. Sturluson, Snorri. Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway. trans. Lee M. Hollander. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1964. ISBN 0-292-73061-6.

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